Air transport is the fastest mode of transport within International Trade. Due to its speed, the use of cargo aircraft for freight transport is undergoing a noticeable increase in recent years. A speed that justifies the higher cost with respect to other means of transport such as the boat.
The calculation of air freight can be carried out according to the gross weight of the shipment or by the volume of the shipment.
If the calculation is made by gross weight, the gross weight must be rounded to the higher kilo or half kilo.
For very bulky shipments, a maximum ratio has been established between the weight and volume of a shipment. The factor used is 6,000 cubic centimeters per kilo. If the shipment exceeds this maximum, then the calculation of the freight must be made according to the volume of the same. The formula is: length x width x height of the shipment in centimeters divided by the factor 6,000 cm3. The result is volume weight.
Types of air freight
General cargo freight
They are applicable to all types of cargo and are sub-divided into regular freight, which are the basis of any freight structure and apply to shipments weighing more than 45 kg; And discounted freight for larger quantities, applicable to shipments weighing more than 45 kilos. Discounted freight scales are available for shipments over 100, 300 and 500 kilos. In some countries there are also smaller freight for shipments over 1,000 kilos.
Freight by merchandise classes
They apply only to certain types of goods. They are not published in units of money per kilo but in percentages, sometimes higher and sometimes lower than regular rates. The following products are included in this freight category by goods class:
- Undocumented baggage
- Newspapers, magazines, books, catalogues and writings in Braille system
- Live animals
- Gold, platinum, things of value
- Funeral urns and coffins
Freight for specific loads
These freight are of particular importance to exporters as they are very small and applicable to certain products. Air cargo shipments generally must have a minimum weight to benefit from these freight. Users can ask airlines to apply a specific freight when they regularly have shipments of the same product to the same destination. The airline will submit this application to its parent company and determine whether or not the specific freight requested will be applied.
Freight for transport units
Transport units to the different means of transport used by airlines such as pallets and containers are understood. Unlike other freight, freight per transport unit is charged per unit. That is, fixed fares apply according to the means of transport used between a destination airport and a destination airport.
Additional charges to air freight
Fuel: fluctuating per kilo of cargo according to the airline, and is charged by themselves.
AC (Additional Charge): Additional charge equal to 1% of freight charged. It's charged by some airlines
DG (Dangerous Goods): varies by dangerous type (UN and IMO)